In further work, they studied the effect of precursor composition on device performance. Films exhibited a band gap and absorption coefficients of 1.49–1.5 eV and ~104 cm−1, respectively, consistent with established values for CZTS [71]. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar PV cell. material, Quantifying the role of defects, surfaces, and grain boundaries. Intermediate layers such as CdS help in both the growth and electrical properties The types included in this report are amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide. No clinical data are available on human health effects associated with exposure to CdTe. They first electrodeposited either Cu/Zn/Sn or Cu/Sn/Zn sequential stacks, and then carried out low temperature annealing at 210–350°C to facilitate phase separation and yield homogeneous (Cu, Zn) and (Cu, Sn) compounds. This work involves characterization of cadmium zinc telluride films and solar cells prepared by close spaced sublimation. T While the “substrate” configuration can be grown on any type of substrates that could be rigid glass or flexible metal or polymer foil. In addition, it is possible to produce thin film solar cells on flexible materials, including fabrics that might be used for clothing. Molybdenum (Mo), grown by sputtering or e-beam evaporation is the most commonly used electrical back contact material for CIGS solar cells. Figure 9.3. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a most common n-type window layer with energy band gap of 2.4 eV. Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdxZn1-xTe or CZT) is a ternary semiconductor with a tunable bandgap of 1.44-2.26 eV. NREL has a world-class assembly of CdTe photovoltaic research tools and expertise. First Solar Inc. (a leading company in CdTe commercialization) PV modules reach more than 10 GWp of module installations worldwide. CdTe is beneficial as a material for solar cells, specifically its appropriate value of direct energy gap and its capability to maintain good electronic properties under thin-film form. CdTe appears to be particularly effective for large area solar cells; this is its main strength. The high quantum efficiency for CdTe/CdS TFSC lies in the range of 500–850 nm of the solar spectrum. 10. Pawar et al. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a national laboratory 9.3. module production worldwide. Two types of precursor films were investigated which were either Cu-poor or Cu-rich. SEM micrographs showing the top and the cross-sectional views of CZTS films [71]. The intrinsic (i) form of a-Si thin film can be doped as p-type or n-type to form a p-n junction, however, initial p-n junction device trials could not result in a solar cell action. This may lead to secondary phase formation and may limit this technique to produce CZTS single phase. Schurr et al. Back contacts to the solar cell are made by first depositing a layer of p conductivity type lead telluride upon the cadmium telluride and then depositing the metallic back contacts onto the lead telluride. Electrochemical deposition of metals and alloys involves the reduction of metals ions from aqueous, organic, or fused-salt electrolytes. Recently, the research activities have shifted gradually toward TFSCs utilizing polycrystalline compound semiconductors with direct bandgaps and high-absorption coefficients, which have an immense prospective to accomplish high conversion efficiency and high stability compared to a-Si solar cells. Photovoltaic parameters of a CdTe solar cell using the RTP process [21]. First Solar (USA) leads the production of CdTe modules (2.47 m2) delivering on average 17% efficiencies with a current annual production capacity reaching around 3 GW, which is due to be scaled up to 7 GW by 2019. It can be grown through a variety of vacuum and nonvacuum methods. A similar procedure to fabricate CZTS solar cells by solid-state reaction of electroplated Cu–Zn–Sn precursors was done by Ennaoui et al. Schematic presentation of a-Si solar cell in “superstrate” (p-i-n) configuration (left) and “substrate” (n-i-p) configuration (right). SEM images of precursor metal layers (A) Cu on Mo, (B) Sn on Cu, (C) Zn on Sn [66]. The particularly suitable optoelectronic properties of CdTe are still driving the attention of both scientific communities and industrial companies in the highly competitive world of PV materials. The United States is the leader in cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, The choline-based ionic liquid is made of air and water stable with negligible vapor pressure up to 130°C and allowing elevated deposition temperatures. Several types of CdTe solar cells such as Schottky barrier, homojunction, heterojunction, and p–i–n have been explored to date. Polycrystalline cadmium telluride 3n-i-p solar cell Meyers, P. V. Abstract. performance, reducing costs, and advancing fundamental knowledge. Cadmium-telluride—Material for thin film solar cells - Volume 13 Issue 10 - Dieter Bonnet, Peter Meyers Skip to main content We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Cu–Zn–Sn precursors were coelectrodeposited on a copper-coated glass substrate acting as the working electrode during the process. Figure 10.1. Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers The Cu treatment was performed by thermally evaporating a ~4 nm thick Cu layer before depositing a Au back contact layer, and then annealing at 150 °C for 45 min in a dry air ambient. silicon while maintaining cost leadership. Data Bridge Market Research Report On Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (Cdte) Market Provides Analysis And Insights Regarding The Various Factors Expected To Be Prevalent Throughout The Forecast Period While Providing Their Impacts On The … This accounts for the excellent material stability and device performance. Today, CIGS solar cells employ either ITO or, more frequently, RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO. were the first to synthesize CZTS thin films by electrodeposition method using a choline-based ionic liquid as the electrolyte rather than the conventional aqueous solution. However, recent efforts have improved the efficiency to ∼13%. The first synthesis of CZTS using electrochemical deposition was done by Scragg et al. sputtering. The abrupt decline around 825 nm matches well with the CdTe bandgap. Both substrate and superstrate configurations have achieved conversion efficiencies 14% and 22%, respectively. operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Efforts include:CdTe is generating electricity at levelized Schematic presentation of CIGS solar cell in substrate configuration. It is also now purported to be the lowest cost per watt technology, have the shortest energy payback time and be the least carbon intensive in production. The main alternative is CdTe. Tom Baines, ... Jonathan D. Major, in A Comprehensive Guide to Solar Energy Systems, 2018. Manufacturing solar cells from thin film materials is much easier than making them from solid semiconductor substrates because they can either be produced by vapor deposition techniques, by sputtering, or in some cases by printing. devices, including: Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultrathin glass (Mahabaduge et al.). Cadmium telluride (CdTe) based photovoltaics provide a viable solar energy solution because of their short payback time, low manufacturing cost, and high theoretical efficiency ~29%. However, to improve the electrical properties of CdTe thin films, doping is usually utilized with dopants such as copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn) to lessen the resistivity and to improve the carrier concentration preferred for solar cell application. A cross section of a CdTe solar cell is shown in Fig. Adding the optimum amount of selenium in the right places could help increase efficiency from the current mark of ~22% towards the theoretical limit of 30-33%. It bears a reverse, n-i-p, configuration and the light enters through the last grown p-layer. However, CdS remains the most widely investigated buffer layer. 2. It has an ideal direct band gap ∼1.5 eV which matches well with the maxima of the Sun’s spectrum offering maximum theoretical efficiency ∼30% limit. have shown the possibility of preparing CZTS thin films by a single step coelectrodeposition of the metals as well as the sulfur. spin coating, spray deposition, and thermal evaporation methods. In production facilities workers may be exposed to Cd compounds through the air they breathe, as well as by ingestion from hand-to-mouth contact. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) belongs to the II-VI semiconductors family, together with other notable compounds such as cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc selenide (ZnSe). Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells contain thin-film layers of cadmium telluride materials as a semiconductor to convert absorbed sunlight and hence generate electricity. So far, the highest efficiencies have been achieved in “superstrate” configuration for CdTe. The top countries of supplier is China, from which the percentage of cadmium telluride solar cells supply is 100% respectively. 1.3.1 Two Terminal Tandem Solar Cell Structure 5 1.3.2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cell Structure 6 1.4 Cadmium Zinc Telluride, Cd1-xZnxTe (CZT) Solar Cells 7 CHAPTER 2 SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY AND SOLAR CELLS 8 s d i l o S f o s e 8 p y T 1 . Together, the This plot is courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. Metal is placed on the back to form electrical Fig. Fig. CdTe thin-film photovoltaic solar cells can be assembled easily and as long as they are an economical replacement for traditional silicon-based photovoltaic technologies. other measurements, Collaborations with NREL computational scientists. Meanwhile, research continues to optimize the various layers, particularly the window layer, in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. There are several thin film semiconductors that have been developed for solar cells. The maximum theoretical efficiency of CdTe solar cell corresponding to a bandgap of 1.5 eV is about 28%–30%. 18.1. It was found that to synthesize effective CZTS films from electrodeposition route using a layered metal precursor, it is necessary to start with a nonstoichiometric initial precursor composition [for instance the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio must be as low as 0.7]. CZTS, Cu2ZnSnS4; SLG, soda lime glass. Advancing our understanding through theoretical calculations and characterization. 44.16 illustrates the different morphologies of sequential depositions of three layers. voltage, diode quality, and efficiency. in 2008. In 2012, Ahmed et al., achieved a record efficiency of 7.3% for CZTS solar cells fabricated by a three-step electrodeposition method. CdTe, intermediate, and TCO layers form an electric field that converts light absorbed For CdTe-based systems, the energy price was around 7–8 US cent/kWh few years ago, which has come down to 5–6 US cent/kWh by June 2015 and continues to reduce to 4–5 US cent/kWh. The precursor film was first pot-annealed in sulfur vapor to allow the sulfur to react with other components and finally an annealing was performed at 450°C for 90 minutes in elemental sulfur under an argon flow for growing pc-Si CZTS thin films. On top of the conducting layer, the next layer to be deposited is one of n-type cadmium sulfide that forms the first part of the p-n junction. The CdTe film acts as the primary photoconversion layer CdTe thin-film PV solar cells can be assembled rapidly and as long as an economical substitute for conventional silicon-based PV technologies. Therefore it is impossible for any vapors or dust to be generated when using PV modules. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. (The conductivity of its oxide is particularly important in this application.) The post-grown treatments including CdCl2 heat treatment and Cu treatment have been applied on some CdTe solar cells for comparison, before the last step of back contact deposition. Due to the ease and speed of its production CdTe offers the least payback time <1 year among all competing technologies including c-Si, thus making it one of the fastest growing technologies. Resolving these issues requires addressing Among all the deposition methods, the highest efficient CdTe TFSC was achieved by CSS technique. This includes the ability to deposit all the layers mentioned above as well as novel materials and device structures. cell materials. Although there will be variations in the techniques for depositing the various layers, and in the composition of the layers themselves, the process for manufacturing thin film cells from any suitable semiconductor will involve similar stages. Nowshad Amin, ... M.D. The substrate temperature is one of the crucial parameters for CdTe deposition as it could be viewed that most of the deposition techniques demonstrated have substrate heating. And generate electricity two electrodes, cadmium sulfide to form an ohmic contact substrate! Absorption coefficient, thicknesses for CdTe thin films by a single company, first.... 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